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Cool Pic :)
Great job! But u do need to add on these:
1)analyze Mr. Underwood editorial and the trial scene. connect them to the theme of the novel
2) describe the town of Maycomb and how it reflects the characters in it. (describe Radley' house and how it represent the radleys physical & personality traits and for the other characters as well)
3) analyze more on the characters of Scout, Jem, Atticus, Tim because they are the main characters. What happened to them. how they changed? what changed them?
these are the things that we discuss in class ya
BTW nice idea on the study question. how bout providing us the answers to the questions. put it in point form. i'll help u to edit them once u uploaded the answers
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Nelle Harper Lee (born April 28, 1926) is an American author best known for her 1960 Pulitzer Prize winning novel To Kill a Mockingbird, which deals with the issues of racism that were observed by the author as a child in her hometown of Monroeville, Alabama. Despite being Lee's only published book, it led to Lee being awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom of the United States for her contribution to literature in 2007. Lee has also been the recipient of numerous honorary degrees, but has always declined to make a speech.She was born in Monroeville, Alabama, the youngest of four children. Her father, a former newspaper editor and proprietor, was a lawyer who served in the Alabama State Legislature from 1926 to 1938. As a child, Lee was a tomboy and a precocious reader, and was best friends with her schoolmate and neighbor, the young Truman Capote.In 1944, Lee graduated from Monroe County High School in Monroeville,and enrolled at the all-female Huntingdon College in Montgomery for one year, and pursued a law degree at the University of Alabama from 1945 to 1949, pledging the Chi Omega sorority. Lee wrote for several student publications and spent a year as editor of the campus humor magazine, Rammer Jammer. Though she did not complete the law degree, she studied for a summer in Oxford, England, before moving to New York City in 1950, where she worked as a reservation clerk Eastern Air Lines and BOACLee continued as a reservation clerk until 1958, when she devoted herself to writing. She lived a frugal life, traveling between her cold-water-only apartment in New York City and her family home in south-central Alabama to care for her father.




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To Kill a Mockingbird takes place in Alabama during the Depression, and is narrated by Finch's daughter, nicknamed Scout, an immensely intelligent and observant child. She starts the story when she is six and relates many of her experiences, usual interests of a child, and events which break the sheltered world of childhood. Her mother is dead and she tries to keep pace with her older brother Jem. During the humorous and sad events Scout and Jem learn a lesson in good and evil, and compassion and justice. As Scout's narrative goes on, the reader realizes that she will never kill a mockingbird or become a racist. Scout tells her story in her own language, which is obviously that of a child, but she also analyzes people and their actions from the viewpoint of an already grown-up, mature person.

The story begins when the children are curious to know more about Boo Radley,who lives in their neighborhood but never leaves his house. Legend has it that he once stabbed his father in the leg with a pair of scissors, and he is made out to be a kind of monster. Dill is from Mississippi but spends his summer in Maycomb at a house near the Finch's.

During one summer create a mini-drama they enact daily, which tells the events of his life as they know them. Slowly, the children begin moving closer to the Radley house, which is said to be haunted. The next winter Miss Maudie's house catches on fire. While Jem and Scout, shivering, watch the blaze from near the Radley house, someone puts a blanket around Scout without her realizing it. Not until she returns home and Atticus asks her where the blanket came from does she realize that Boo Radley must have put it around her while she was entranced by watching Miss Maudie's burning house.

Atticus decides to take on a case involving a black man named Tom Robinson, who has been accused of raping a very poor white girl named Mayella. He knows Tom is innocent, and also that he has almost no chance at being acquitted, because the white jury will never believe a black man over a white woman.

The trial pits the evidence of the white Ewell family against Tom's evidence. According to the Ewells, Mayella asked Tom to do some work for her while her father was out, and Tom came into their house and forcibly beat and raped Mayella until her father appeared and scared him away. Tom's version is that Mayella invited him inside, then threw her arms around him and began to kiss him. Tom tried to push her away. When Bob Ewell arrived, he flew into a rage and beat her, while Tom ran away in fright.

According to the sheriff's testimony, Mayella's bruises were on the right side of her face, which means she was most likely punched with a left hand. Tom Robinson's left arm is useless due to an old accident, whereas Mr. Ewell is left-handed. Given the evidence of reasonable doubt, Tom should go free, but after hours of deliberation the jury pronounces him guilty. Scout, Jem and Dill sneak into the courthouse to see the trial and sit in the balcony with Maycomb's black population. They are stunned at the verdict because to them, the evidence was so clearly in Tom's favor.

Though the verdict is unfortunate, Atticus feels some satisfaction that the jury took so long deciding. Usually, the decision would be made in minutes, because a black man's word would not be trusted. Atticus is hoping for an appeal, but unfortunately Tom tries to escape from his prison and is shot to death in the process.

Meanwhile, Mr. Ewell threatens Atticus and other people connected with the trial because he feels he was humiliated. He gets his revenge one night while Jem and Scout are walking home from the Halloween play at their school. He follows them home in the dark, then runs at them and attempts to kill them with a large kitchen knife. Jem breaks his arm, and Scout, who is wearing a confining ham shaped wire costume and cannot see what is going on, is helpless throughout the attack. Boo Radley stabs Mr. Ewell and saves the children. Finally, The sheriff declares that Mr. Ewell fell on his own knife so Boo, the hero of the situation, won't have to be tried for murder.




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Chapter 1
The place: Maycomb, Alabama. As our narrator describes it, Maycomb could be a finalist for the Most Boring Town in America. Few people move in, fewer move out, so it’s just the same families doing the same things for generation after generation. One such family is the Finches: Scout, her brother Jem, and their father Atticus. Every summer Scout and Jem are joined by Dill Harris, who shares their obsession with the local haunted house, the Radley Place, and the boogeyman who lives there, Boo Radley. Jem makes up hair-raising stories about Boo’s bloodthirsty ways, but that just makes Dill want to see him all the more.


Chapter 2
On September, Dill leaves Maycomb to return to the town of Meridian. Meanwhile, Scout prepares to go to school for the first time, an event that she has been eagerly anticipating. At school, she finds that her teacher, Miss Caroline treat poorly with children. When Miss Caroline concludes that Atticus must taught Scout to read, she becomes very displeased and make Scout feel guilty for being education. Scout complains to Jem, but Jem says that Miss Caroline is just trying out a new method of teaching.
Miss Caroline and Scout get along badly in the afternoon as well. Walter Cunningham, a boy in Scout’s class, has not brought a lunch. Miss Caroline offers him a quarter to buy lunch, telling him that he can pay her back tomorrow. Walter’s family is large and poor—so poor that they pay Atticus with hickory nuts, turnip greens, or other goods when they need legal help—and Walter will never be able to pay the teacher back or bring a lunch to school. When Scout attempts to explain these situations, however, Miss Caroline fails to understand and grows so frustrated that she slaps Scout’s hand with a ruler.

Chapter 3
At lunch, Scout rubs Walter’s nose in the dirt for getting her in trouble, but Jem intervenes and invites Walter to lunch (in the novel, as in certain regions of the country, the midday meal is called “dinner”). At the Finch house, Walter and Atticus discuss farm conditions “like two men,” and Walter puts molasses all over his meat and vegetables, to Scout’s horror. When she criticizes Walter, however, Calpurnia calls her into the kitchen to scold her and slaps her as she returns to the dining room, telling her to be a better hostess. Back at school, Miss Caroline becomes terrified when a tiny bug, or “cootie,” crawls out of a boy’s hair. The boy is Burris Ewell, a member of the Ewell clan, which is even poorer and less respectable than the Cunningham clan. In fact, Burris only comes to school the first day of every school year, making a token appearance to avoid trouble with the law. He leaves the classroom, making enough violent remarks to cause the teacher to cry.
At home, Atticus follows Scout outside to ask her if something is wrong, to which she responds that she is not feeling well. She tells him that she does not think she will go to school anymore and suggests that he could teach her himself. Atticus replies that the law demands that she go to school, but he promises to keep reading to her, as long as she does not tell her teacher about it.
You never really understand a person until you . . . climb into his skin and walk around in it.


Chapter 4
The rest of the school year passes grimly for Scout, who endures a curriculum that moves too slowly and leaves her constantly frustrated in class. After school one day, she passes the Radley Place and sees some tinfoil sticking out of a knothole in one of the Radleys’ oak trees. Scout reaches into the knothole and discovers two pieces of chewing gum. She chews both pieces and tells Jem about it. He panics and makes her spit it out. On the last day of school, however, they find two old “Indian-head” pennies hidden in the same knothole where Scout found the gum and decide to keep them.
Summer comes at last, school ends, and Dill returns to Maycomb. He, Scout, and Jem begin their games again. One of the first things they do is roll one another inside an old tire. On Scout’s turn, she rolls in front of the Radley steps, and Jem and Scout panic. However, this incident gives Jem the idea for their next game: they will play “Boo Radley.” As the summer passes, their game becomes more complicated, until they are acting out an entire Radley family melodrama. Eventually, however, Atticus catches them and asks if their game has anything to do with the Radleys. Jem lies and Atticus goes back into the house. The kids wonder if it’s safe to play their game anymore.

Chapter 5
Jem and Dill grow closer, and Scout begins to feel left out of their friendship. As a result, she starts spending much of her time with one of their neighbors: Miss Maudie Atkinson, a widow with a talent for gardening and cake baking who was a childhood friend of Atticus’s brother, Jack. She tells Scout that Boo Radley is still alive and it is her theory Boo is the victim of a harsh father (now dead), a “foot-washing” Baptist who believed that most people are going to hell. Miss Maudie adds that Boo was always polite and friendly as a child. She says that most of the rumors about him are false, but that if he wasn’t crazy as a boy, he probably is by now.
Meanwhile, Jem and Dill plan to give a note to Boo inviting him out to get ice cream with them. They try to stick the note in a window of the Radley Place with a fishing pole, but Atticus catches them and orders them to “stop disturbing that man” with either notes or the “Boo Radley” game.

Chapter 6
Jem and Dill obey Atticus until Dill’s last day in Maycomb, when he and Jem plan to sneak over to the Radley Place and peek in through a loose shutter. Scout accompanies them, and they creep around the house, peering in through various windows. Suddenly, they see the shadow of a man with a hat on and flee, hearing a shotgun go off behind them. They escape under the fence by the schoolyard, but Jem’s pants get caught on the fence, and he has to kick them off in order to free himself.
The children return home, where they bump into a group of neighborhood adults, including Atticus, Miss Maudie, and Miss Stephanie Crawford, the neighborhood gossip. Miss Maudie informs them that Mr. Nathan Radley shot at “a Negro” in his yard. Miss Stephanie adds that Mr. Radley is waiting outside with his gun so he can shoot at the next sound he hears. When Atticus asks Jem where his pants are, Dill interjects that he won Jem’s pants in a game of strip poker. Alarmed, Atticus asks them if they were playing cards. Jem responds that they were just playing with matches. Late that night, Jem sneaks out to the Radley Place, and retrieves his pants.

Chapter 7
School has begun for the year. Jem tells Scout that he found the pants mysteriously mended and hung neatly over the fence. When they come home from school that day, they find another present hidden in the knothole: a ball of gray twine. They leave it there for a few days, but no one takes it, so they claim it for their own.
Unsurprisingly, Scout is as unhappy in second grade as she was in first, but Jem promises her that school gets better the farther along one goes. Late that fall, another present appears in the knothole—two figures carved in soap to resemble Scout and Jem. The figures are followed in turn by chewing gum, a spelling bee medal, and an old pocket watch. The next day, Jem and Scout find that the knothole has been filled with cement. The following day, Jem asks Mr. Radley (Nathan Radley, Boo’s brother) about the knothole. Mr. Radley says that he plugged the knothole because the tree is dying.

Chapter 8
For the first time in years, Maycomb endures a real winter. Jem and Scout haul as much snow as they could from Miss Maudie’s yard to their own. Since there is not enough snow to make a real snowman, they build a small figure out of dirt and cover it with snow. They make it look like Mr. Avery, an unpleasant man who lives down the street. The figure’s likeness to Mr. Avery is so strong that Atticus demands that they disguise it. Jem places Miss Maudie’s sunhat on its head and sticks her hedge clippers in its hands, much to her annoyed.
That night, Atticus wakes Scout and helps her put on her bathrobe and coat and goes outside with her and Jem. Miss Maudie’s house is on fire. The neighbors help her save her furniture, and the fire truck arrives in time to stop the fire from spreading to other houses, but Miss Maudie’s house burns to the ground. In the confusion, someone drapes a blanket over Scout. When Atticus later asks her about it, she has no idea who put it over her. Jem realizes that Boo Radley put it on her, and he reveals the whole story of the knothole, the presents, and the mended pants to Atticus. Atticus tells them to keep it to themselves, and Scout, realizing that Boo was just behind her, nearly throws up.
Despite having lost her house, Miss Maudie is cheerful the next day. She tells the children how much she hated her old home and that she is already planning to build a smaller house and plant a larger garden. She says that she wishes she had been there when Boo put the blanket on Scout to catch him in the act.

Chapter 9
At school, Scout nearly starts a fight with a classmate named Cecil Jacobs after Cecil declares that Atticus defends niggers. Atticus has been asked to defend Tom Robinson, a black man accused of raping a white woman. It is a case he cannot hope to win, but he tells Scout that he must argue it to uphold his sense of justice and self-respect. At Christmastime, Atticus’s brother, Jack, comes to stay with Atticus. On Christmas Day, Atticus takes his children and Jack to Finch’s Landing, a rambling old house in the country where Atticus’s sister, Alexandra and her husband live.One night, Francis, Alexandra’s grandson tells Scout that Dill is a runt and then calls Atticus a “nigger-lover”. Scout curses him and beats him up. Uncle Jack knew about it and he spanks Scout without hearing her side of the story. After they return to Maycomb, Scout tells Jack the real story and Jack becomes furious. Later, Scout overhears Atticus telling Jack that Tom Robinson is innocent but doomed since it’s unthinkable that an all-white jury would ever release him.


Chapter 10
“Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy . . . but sing their hearts out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.”
Atticus, Scout says, is somewhat older than most of the other fathers in Maycomb. His relatively advanced age often embarrasses his children—he wears glasses and reads, for instance, instead of hunting and fishing like the other men in town. One day, however, a mad dog appears, wandering down the main street toward the Finches’ house. Calpurnia calls Atticus, who returns home with Heck Tate, the sheriff of Maycomb. Heck brings a rifle and asks Atticus to shoot the animal. To Jem and Scout’s amazement, Atticus does so, hitting the dog with his first shot despite his considerable distance from the dog. Later, Miss Maudie tells Jem and Scout that, as a young man, Atticus was the best shot in the county—“One-shot Finch.” Scout is eager to brag about this, but Jem tells her to keep it a secret, because if Atticus wanted them to know, he would have told them.

Chapter 11
On the way to the business district in Maycomb is the house of Mrs. Dubose, a cantankerous old lady who always shouts at Jem and Scout as they pass by. Atticus warns Jem to be a gentleman to her, because she is old and sick, but one day she tells the children that Atticus is not any better than the “niggers and trash he works for,” and Jem loses his temper. Jem takes a baton from Scout and destroys all of Mrs. Dubose’s camellia bushes. As punishment, Jem must go to her house every day for a month and read to her. Scout accompanies him and they endure Mrs. Dubose’s abuse and weird fits, which occur at the end of every reading session. Each session is longer than the one before. Mrs. Dubose dies a little more than a month after Jem’s punishment ends. Atticus reveals to Jem that she was addicted to morphine and that the reading was part of her successful effort to combat this addiction. Atticus gives Jem a box that Mrs. Dubose had given her maid for Jem; in it lies a single white camellia.


Chapter 12
Jem has reached the age of twelve and he begins to demand that Scout “stop annoyance him” and act more like a girl. Scout becomes upset and looks forward desperately to Dill’s arrival in the summer. However, Dill’s sends a letter saying that he does not come to Maycomb this year. To make matters worse, the state legislature, of which Atticus is a member, is called into session, forcing Atticus to travel to the state capital every day for two weeks. Calpurnia decides to take the children to her church is an old building, called First Purchase. One woman, Lula, criticizes Calpurnia for bringing white children to church, but the congregation is generally friendly, and Reverend Sykes welcomes them, saying that everyone knows their father. The church has no money for hymnals, and Calpurnia’s eldest son and the town garbage collector, reads from their only hymnal. During the service, Reverend Sykes takes up a collection for Tom Robinson’s wife, Helen, who cannot find work now that her husband has been accused of rape. After the service, Scout learns that Tom Robinson has been accused by Bob Ewell and cannot understand why anyone would believe the Ewell’s word.

Chapter 13
Aunt Alexandra explains that she should stay with the children for a while, to give them a “feminine influence.” Maycomb gives her a fine welcome: various ladies in the town bake her cakes and have her over for coffee, and she soon becomes an integral part of the town’s social life. Alexandra is extremely proud of the Finches and spends much of her time discussing the characteristics of the various families in Maycomb. This “family consciousness” is an integral part of life in Maycomb, an old town where the same families have lived for generations, where every family has its quirks and eccentricities. However, Jem and Scout lack the pride that Aunt Alexandra considers adequate with being a Finch. She orders Atticus to lecture them on the subject of their ancestry. He makes a valiant attempt but succeeds only in making Scout cry.

Chapter 14
The impending trial of Tom Robinson and Atticus’s role as his defense lawyer make Jem and Scout the objects of whispers and glances whenever they go to town. One day, Scout tries to ask Atticus what “rape” is, and the subject of the children’s trip to Calpurnia’s church comes up. Aunt Alexandra tells Scout she cannot go back the next Sunday. Later, she tries to convince Atticus to get rid of Calpurnia, saying that they no longer need her. Atticus refuses. That night, Jem tells Scout not to antagonize Alexandra. Scout gets angry at being lectured and attacks Jem. Atticus breaks up the fight and sends them to bed. Scout discovers something under her bed. She calls Jem in and they discover Dill hiding there.
Dill has run away from home because his mother and new father did not pay enough attention to him. He took a train from Meridian to Maycomb Junction, fourteen miles away, and covered the remaining distance on foot and on the back of a cotton wagon. Jem goes down the hall and tells Atticus. Atticus asks Scout to get more food than a pan of cold corn bread for Dill, before going next door to tell Dill’s aunt, Miss Rachel, of his whereabouts. Dill eats, then gets into Jem’s bed to sleep, but soon climbs over to Scout’s bed to talk things over.

Chapter 15
A week after Dill’s arrival, a group of men led by the sheriff, Heck Tate, comes to Atticus’s house in the evening. As his trial is nearing, Tom Robinson is to be moved to the Maycomb jail. Later, Jem tells Scout that Alexandra and Atticus have been arguing about the trial. The following evening, Atticus takes the car into town. Jem, accompanied by Scout and Dill, sneaks out of the house and follows his father to the town center. From a distance, they see Atticus sitting in front of the Maycomb jail, reading a newspaper. Then they return to home.
At that moment, four cars drive into Maycomb. A group of men gets out, and one demands that Atticus move away from the jailhouse door. Atticus refuses, and Scout suddenly comes racing out of her hiding place next door, only to realize that this group of men differs from the group that came to their house the previous night. Jem and Dill follow her, and Atticus orders Jem to go home.
Meanwhile, Scout looks around the group and recognizes Mr. Cunningham, the father of her classmate Walter Cunningham. She starts talking to him about his legal entailments and his son, and asks him to tell his son “hey.” All of the men stare at her. Mr. Cunningham, suddenly ashamed, squats down and tells Scout that he will tell his son “hey” for her, and then tells his companions to clear out. They depart, and Mr. Underwood, the owner of the newspaper, speaks from a nearby window where he is positioned with a double-barreled shotgun: “Had you covered all the time, Atticus.” Atticus and Mr. Underwood talk for a while, and then Atticus takes the children home.

Chapter 16
The trial begins the next day. People from all over the county flood the town. Everyone makes an appearance in the courtroom.
The vast crowd camps in the town square to eat lunch. Afterward, Jem, Scout, and Dill wait for most of the crowd to enter the courthouse so that they can slip in at the back and thus prevent Atticus from noticing them. However, because they wait too long, they succeed in getting seats only when Reverend Sykes lets them sit in the balcony where black people are required to sit in order to watch the trial. From these seats, they can see the whole courtroom. Judge Taylor, a white-haired old man with a reputation for running his court in an informal fashion, presides over the case.

Chapter 17
The prosecutor, Mr. Gilmer, questions Heck Tate, who recounts how, on the night of November 21, Bob Ewell urged him to go to the Ewell house and told him that his daughter Mayella had been raped. When Tate got there, he found Mayella bruised and beaten, and she told him that Tom Robinson had raped her. Atticus cross-examines the witness, who admits that no doctor was summoned, and tells Atticus that Mayella’s bruises were concentrated on the right side of her face. Tate leaves the stand, and Bob Ewell is called.
Bob Ewell and his children live behind the town garbage dump in a tin-roofed cabin with a yard full of trash. No one is sure how many children Ewell has, and the only orderly corner of the yard is planted with well-tended geraniums rumored to belong to Mayella. An extremely rude little man, Ewell testifies that on the evening in question he was coming out of the woods with a load of kindling when he heard his daughter yelling. When he reached the house, he looked in the window and saw Tom Robinson raping her. Robinson fled, and Ewell went into the house, saw that his daughter was all right, and ran for the sheriff. Atticus’s cross-examination is brief: he asks Mr. Ewell why no doctor was called (it was too expensive and there was no need), and then has the witness write his name. Bob Ewell, the jury sees, is left-handed—and a left-handed man would be more likely to leave bruises on the right side of a girl’s face.

Chapter 18
The trial continues, with the whole town glued to the proceedings. Mayella, who testifies next, is a reasonably clean—by the Ewells’ standards—and obviously terrified nineteen-year-old girl. She says that she called Tom Robinson inside the fence that evening and offered him a nickel to break up a dresser for her, and that once he got inside the house he grabbed her and took advantage of her. In Atticus’s cross-examination, Mayella reveals that her life consists of seven unhelpful siblings, a drunken father, and no friends.
Atticus then examines her testimony and asks why she didn’t put up a better fight, why her screams didn’t bring the other children running, and, most important, how Tom Robinson managed the crime: how he bruised the right side of her face with his useless left hand, which was torn apart by a cotton gin when he was a boy. Atticus pleads with Mayella to admit that there was no rape, that her father beat her. She shouts at him and yells that the courtroom would have to be a bunch of cowards not to convict Tom Robinson; she then bursts into tears, refusing to answer any more questions. In the recess that follows, Mr. Underwood notices the children up in the balcony, but Jem tells Scout that the newspaper editor won’t tell Atticus about their being there—although he might include it in the social section of the newspaper. The prosecution rests, and Atticus calls only one witness—Tom Robinson.

Chapter 19
Tom testifies that he always passed the Ewell house on the way to work and that Mayella often asked him to do chores for her. On the evening in question, he recounts, she asked him to come inside the house and fix a door. When he got inside, there was nothing wrong with the door, and he noticed that the other children were gone. Mayella told him she had saved her money and sent them all to buy ice cream. Then she asked him to lift a box down from a dresser. When Tom climbed on a chair, she grabbed his legs, scaring him so much that he jumped down. She then hugged him around the waist and asked him to kiss her. As she struggled, her father appeared at the window, calling Mayella a whore and threatening to kill her. Tom fled.
Link Deas, Tom’s white employer, stands up and declares that in eight years of work, he has never had any trouble from Tom. Judge Taylor furiously expels Deas from the courtroom for interrupting. Mr. Gilmer gets up and cross-examines Tom. The prosecutor points out that the defendant was once arrested for disorderly conduct and gets Tom to admit that he has the strength, even with one hand, to choke the breath out of a woman and sling her to the floor. He begins to badger the witness, asking about his motives for always helping Mayella with her chores, until Tom declares that he felt sorry for her. This statement puts the courtroom ill at ease—in Maycomb, black people aren’t supposed to feel sorry for a white person. Mr. Gilmer reviews Mayella’s testimony, accusing Tom of lying about everything. Dill begins to cry, and Scout takes him out of the courtroom. Outside the courtroom, Dill complains to Scout about Mr. Gilmer’s rude treatment of Tom Robinson during the questioning. As they walk, Scout and Dill encounter Mr. Dolphus Raymond, the rich white man with the colored mistress and mulatto children.

Chapter 20
Mr. Dolphus Raymond reveals that he is drinking from a paper sack. He commiserates with Dill and offers him a drink in a paper bag. Dill slurps up some of the liquid and Scout warns him not to take much, but Dill reveals to her that the drink isn’t alcoholic—it’s only Coca-Cola. Mr. Raymond tells the children that he pretends to be a drunk to provide the other white people with an explanation for his lifestyle, when, in fact, he simply prefers black people to whites.
When Dill and Scout return to the courtroom, Atticus is making his closing remarks. He has finished going over the evidence and now makes a personal appeal to the jury. He points out that the prosecution has produced no medical evidence of the crime and has presented only the shaky testimony of two unreliable witnesses; moreover, the physical evidence suggests that Bob Ewell, not Tom Robinson, beat Mayella. He then offers his own version of events, describing how Mayella, lonely and unhappy, committed the unmentionable act of lusting after a black man and then concealed her shame by accusing him of rape after being caught. Atticus begs the jury to avoid the state’s assumption that all black people are criminals and to deliver justice by freeing Tom Robinson. As soon as Atticus finishes, Calpurnia comes into the courtroom.

Chapter 21
Calpurnia hands Atticus a note telling him that his children have not been home since noon. Mr. Underwood says that Jem and Scout are in the colored balcony and have been there since just after one in the afternoon. Atticus tells them to go home and have supper. They beg to be allowed to hear the verdict; Atticus says that they can return after supper, though he knows that the jury will likely have returned before then.
Calpurnia marches Jem, Scout, and Dill home. They eat quickly and return to find the jury still out, the courtroom still full. Evening comes, night falls, and the jury continues to deliberate. Jem is confident of victory, while Dill has fallen asleep. Finally, after eleven that night, the jury enters. Scout remembers that a jury never looks at a man it has convicted, and she notices that the twelve men do not look at Tom Robinson as they file in and deliver a guilty verdict. The courtroom begins to empty, and as Atticus goes out, everyone in the colored balcony rises in a gesture of respect.

Chapter 22
That night, Jem cries, railing against the injustice of the verdict. The next day, Maycomb’s black population delivers an avalanche of food to the Finch household. Outside, Miss Stephanie Crawford is gossiping with Mr. Avery and Miss Maudie, and she tries to question Jem and Scout about the trial. Miss Maudie rescues the children by inviting them in for some cake. Jem complains that his illusions about Maycomb have been shattered: he thought that these people were the best in the world, but, having seen the trial, he doesn’t think so anymore. Miss Maudie points out that there were people who tried to help, like Judge Taylor, who appointed Atticus to the case instead of the regular public defender. She adds that the jury’s staying out so long constitutes a sign of progress in race relations. As the children leave Miss Maudie’s house, Miss Stephanie runs over to tell them that Bob Ewell accosted their father that morning, spat on him, and swore revenge.

Chapter 23
Bob Ewell’s threats are worrisome to everyone except Atticus. Atticus tells Jem and Scout that because he made Ewell look like a fool, Ewell needed to get revenge. Now that Ewell has gotten that vengefulness out of his system, Atticus expects no more trouble. Aunt Alexandra and the children remain worried. Meanwhile, Tom Robinson has been sent to another prison seventy miles away while his appeal winds through the court system. Atticus feels that his client has a good chance of being pardoned. When Scout asks what will happen if Tom loses, Atticus replies that Tom will go to the electric chair, as rape is a capital offense in Alabama.
Jem and Atticus discuss the justice of executing men for rape. The subject then turns to jury trials and to how all twelve men could have convicted Tom. Atticus tells Jem that in an Alabama court of law, a white man’s word always beats a black man’s, and that they were lucky to have the jury out so long. In fact, one man on the jury wanted to acquit—amazingly, it was one of the Cunninghams. Upon hearing this revelation, Scout announces that she wants to invite young Walter Cunningham to dinner, but Aunt Alexandra expressly forbids it, telling her that the Finches do not associate with trash.
Scout grows furious, and Jem hastily takes her out of the room. In his bedroom, Jem reveals his minimal growth of chest hair and tells Scout that he is going to try out for the football team in the fall. They discuss the class system—why their aunt despises the Cunninghams, why the Cunninghams look down on the Ewells, who hate black people, and other such matters. After being unable to figure out why people go out of their way to despise each other, Jem suggests Boo Radley does not come out of his house because he does not want to leave it.

Chapter 24
One day in August, Aunt Alexandra invites her missionary circle to tea. Scout, wearing a dress, helps Calpurnia bring in the tea, and Alexandra invites Scout to stay with the ladies. Scout listens to the missionary circle first discuss the plight of the poor Mrunas, a benighted African tribe being converted to Christianity, and then talk about how their own black servants have behaved badly ever since Tom Robinson’s trial. Miss Maudie shuts up their prattle with icy remarks. Suddenly, Atticus appears and calls Alexandra to the kitchen. There he tells her, Scout, Calpurnia, and Miss Maudie that Tom Robinson attempted to escape and was shot seventeen times. He takes Calpurnia with him to tell the Robinson family of Tom’s death. Alexandra asks Miss Maudie how the town can allow Atticus to wreck himself in pursuit of justice. Maudie replies that the town trusts him to do right. They return with Scout to the missionary circle, managing to act as if nothing is wrong.

Chapter 25
September has begun and Jem and Scout are on the back porch when Scout notices a roly-poly bug. She is about to mash it with her hand when Jem tells her not to. She dutifully places the bug outside. When she asks Jem why she shouldn’t have mashed it, he replies that the bug didn’t do anything to harm her. Scout observes that it is Jem, not she, who is becoming more and more like a girl. Her thoughts turn to Dill, and she remembers him telling her that he and Jem ran into Atticus as they started home from swimming during the last two days of August. Jem had convinced Atticus to let them accompany him to Helen Robinson’s house, where they saw her collapse even before Atticus could say that her husband, Tom, was dead. Meanwhile, the news occupies Maycomb’s attention for about two days, and everyone agrees that it is typical for a black man to do something irrational like try to escape. Mr. Underwood writes a long editorial condemning Tom’s death as the murder of an innocent man. The only other significant reaction comes when Bob Ewell is overheard saying that Tom’s death makes “one down and about two more to go.” Summer ends and Dill leaves.

Chapter 26
School starts, and Jem and Scout again begin to pass by the Radley Place every day. They are now too old to be frightened by the house, but Scout still wistfully wishes to see Boo Radley just once. Meanwhile, the shadow of the trial still hangs over her. One day in school, her third-grade teacher, Miss Gates, lectures the class on the wickedness of Hitler’s persecution of the Jews and on the virtues of equality and democracy. Scout listens and later asks Jem how Miss Gates can preach about equality when she came out of the courthouse after the trial and told Miss Stephanie Crawford that it was about time that someone taught the blacks in town a lesson. Jem becomes furious and tells Scout never to mention the trial to him again. Scout, upset, goes to Atticus for comfort.

Chapter 27
By the middle of October, Bob Ewell gets a job with the WPA, one of the Depression job programs, and loses it a few days later. He blames Atticus for “getting” his job. Also in the middle of October, Judge Taylor is home alone and hears someone prowling around; when he goes to investigate, he finds his screen door open and sees a shadow creeping away. Bob Ewell then begins to follow Helen Robinson to work, keeping his distance but whispering obscenities at her. Deas sees Ewell and threatens to have him arrested if he doesn’t leave Helen alone; he gives her no further trouble. But these events worry Aunt Alexandra, who points out that Ewell seems to have a grudge against everyone connected with the case.
That Halloween, the town sponsors a party and play at the school. This plan constitutes an attempt to avoid the unsupervised mischief of the previous Halloween, when someone burglarized the house of two elderly sisters and hid all of their furniture in their basement. The play is an “agricultural pageant” in which every child portrays a food: Scout wears a wire mesh shaped to look like ham. Both Atticus and Aunt Alexandra are too tired to attend the festivities, so Jem takes Scout to the school.

Chapter 28
It is dark on the way to the school, and Cecil Jacobs jumps out and frightens Jem and Scout. Scout and Cecil wander around the crowded school, visiting the haunted house in a seventh-grade classroom and buying homemade candy. The pageant nears its start and all of the children go backstage. Scout, however, has fallen asleep and consequently misses her entrance. She runs onstage at the end, prompting Judge Taylor and many others to burst out laughing. The woman in charge of the pageant accuses Scout of ruining it. Scout is so ashamed that she and Jem wait backstage until the crowd is gone before they make their way home.
im and Scout. They think it must be Cecil Jacobs trying to frighten them again, but when they call out to him, they hear no reply. They have almost reached the road when their pursuer begins running after them. Jem screams for Scout to run, but in the dark, hampered by her costume, she loses her balance and falls. Something tears at the metal mesh, and she hears struggling behind her. Jem then breaks free and drags Scout almost all the way to the road before their assailant pulls him back. Scout hears a crunching sound and Jem screams; she runs toward him and is grabbed and squeezed. Suddenly, her attacker is pulled away. Once the noise of struggling has ceased, Scout feels on the ground for Jem, finding only the prone figure of an unshaven man smelling of whiskey. She stumbles toward home, and sees, in the light of the streetlamp, a man carrying Jem toward her house.
Scout reaches home, and Aunt Alexandra goes to call Dr. Reynolds. Atticus calls Heck Tate, telling him that someone has attacked his children. Alexandra removes Scout’s costume, and tells her that Jem is only unconscious, not dead. Dr. Reynolds then arrives and goes into Jem’s room. When he emerges, he informs Scout that Jem has a broken arm and a bump on his head, but that he will be all right. Scout goes in to see Jem. The man who carried him home is in the room, but she does not recognize him. Heck Tate appears and tells Atticus that Bob Ewell is lying under a tree, dead, with a knife stuck under his ribs.

Chapter 29
As Scout tells everyone what she heard and saw, Heck Tate shows her costume with a mark on it where a knife slashed and was stopped by the wire. When Scout gets to the point in the story where Jem was picked up and carried home, she turns to the man in the corner and really looks at him for the first time. He is pale, with torn clothes and a thin, pinched face and colorless eyes. She realizes that it is Boo Radley.

Chapter 30
Scout takes Boo—“Mr. Arthur”—down to the porch, and they sit in shadow listening to Atticus and Heck Tate argue. Heck insists on calling the death an accident, but Atticus, thinking that Jem killed Bob Ewell, doesn’t want his son protected from the law. Heck corrects him—Ewell fell on his knife; Jem didn’t kill him. Although he knows that Boo is the one who stabbed Ewell, Heck wants to hush up the whole affair, saying that Boo doesn’t need the attention of the neighborhood brought to his door. Tom Robinson died for no reason, he says, and now the man responsible is dead: “Let the dead bury the dead.”

Chapter 31
Atticus was right. One time he said you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them. Just standing on the Radley porch was enough.

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The narrator and main character who begins her story at almost six years old. A rebellious tomboy, Scout has a fierce disposition toward any who challenge her, but at heart she believes in the goodness of people. Scout reacts to the terrible events of the book without losing hope in humanity.




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The father of Scout and Jem, Atticus is a lawyer and an extremely morally upright man who strives to deal with everyone fairly. Atticus is sometimes overly optimistic, but his unshakable hope in mankind and self-created role as the town 'do-gooder' sustain him. Atticus' wife died when Scout was very small, and he has raised his children only with the assistance of Calpurnia, his black housekeeper and cook.

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Scout's older brother, who is nearly ten at the beginning of the story. Jem is quieter and more reserved than his sister, and has very high standards and expectations for people. When these expectations are not met, Jem has a difficult time resolving his feelings.


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A recluse who never emerges from his house. As a young boy, he was in trouble with the police, and his strictly religious and reclusive parents have kept him indoors ever since. A prisoner in his home, he stabbed his father with scissors once, and no one has seen him since. The town has developed a myth that he is an insane monster who wanders around at night peering into people's windows. Throughout the book, he lives with his brother, who is highly controlling.



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An evil, ignorant man who belongs to the lowest substratum of Maycomb society. He lives with his nine motherless children in a shack near the town dump. Evidence from the trial suggests that he caught his daughter kissing Tom, proceeded to beat her, and then encouraged her to claim Tom raped her. He drinks heavily and spends his relief checks on whiskey rather than food for his family. Bob holds a strong grudge against Atticus and attacks his children at the end of the novel.


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The oldest of the many Ewell children, at age nineteen. She lives a miserable and lonely existence, despised by whites and prohibited from befriending blacks. However, she breaks a social taboo by trying to seduce Tom, then reacts with cowardice by accusing him of rape and perjuring against him in court.
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A black man who stands falsely accused of raping Mayella Ewell. Atticus agrees to take his case, even though he knows it is probably hopeless, if only to show the white community its own moral degeneracy.
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A friend of the Finch children, who is a little older than Scout, quite short for his age, has an active imagination, and exhibits a strong sense of adventure. He initiates the first expeditions toward the Radley house, and is Scout's best friend. His family life is less than ideal, and he tends to resort to escapism when confronted with difficult situations. Dill spends summers with his aunt, who lives next door to the Finch family.

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Miss Maudie Atkinson lives across the street from the Finch family. She had known the Finches for many years, having been brought up on the Buford place, which was near the Finch's ancestral home, Finch Landing. She is described as a woman of about fifty who enjoys baking and gardening; her cakes are especially held in high regard. She is also considered by some to be a symbolic Mockingbird, as she is frequently harassed by devout "Foot-Washing Baptists", who tell her that her enjoyment of gardening is a sin. Miss Maudie befriends Scout and Jem and tells them about Atticus as a boy. During the course of the novel, her house burns down; however, she shows remarkable courage throughout this (even joking that she wanted to burn it down herself to make more room for her flowers). She is not prejudiced, unlike many of her Southern neighbors. Also, she is one of the few adults that Jem and Scout hold in high regard and respect. She does not act condescendingly towards them, even though they are young children. When Jem gets older he doesn't want to be bothered by Scout, Maudie keeps her from going mad.

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A black woman who works as the Finch family's cook and housekeeper. She is one of the many motherly figures in Scout's life and one of the few who can negotiate between the very separate black and white worlds of Maycomb.
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A mean, sick, very old woman who lives near the Finch family. Jem unknowingly assists her with her heroic attempt to conquer her morphine addiction, a fight that wins her Atticus's highest praises.


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Maycomb County's trusty sheriff, who is ultimately an honest and upstanding man.
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A poor farmer who is among the "Sarum bunch," a crowd which assembles near the town jail the night before Tom's trial in order to start a lynching. He is deeply moved by Scout's friendly words when she tries to diffuse the situation, and as a result leads the rest of the men in going home. Ever after, he respects the Finch family greatly.

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Son of the other Walter, who attends first grade with Scout.






















-a GLIMPSE on the characters-




















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To Kill a Mockingbird is a novel taking place in the 1930s in the small town of Maycomb, Alabama. It is the time of the Great Depression and the Finch family, is one of many that are lucky to have what they have. The story is told by Jean Louise Finch “Scout” who is observing what is going on around her during this unfortunate time. Her older brother is Jeremy Finch, and he is also known as“Jem”. Calpurnia, is an African-American lady whom their housekeeper and cook. Atticus is their father, and he is also a lawyer. Arthur Radley “Boo” is a man that has been locked up in his house across the street from the family. There are many rumours that Boo is mentally ill, but the children are interested in him. Dill is a child that is in Maycomb because each year he will stay with his aunt, and his friends are Scout and Jem. Miss Maudie is a nice middle aged lady that lives on their street and is very friendly with Scout, Jem and Dill. School for Scout starts. Burris Ewell arrives at school the first day and the story of the Ewell’s is told. The Ewell’s are a dirty family that lives like animals and no one wants to join and talk with them. They break many rules, such has hunt when it’s not hunting season and only come to school on the first day. Dill arrives and the children attempt to communicate with Boo Radley. Then comes the Tom Robinson case. Atticus agrees to defend Tom when this case will also affect his life personally. Because of this, Atticus is called many names by the whole community, even the Finch family. At a family gathering, Scout attacks her cousin Francis because he calls Atticus an n-lover. The children go with Calpurnia to the African-American church causing people to talk. Their Aunt Alexandra arrives to stay with the Finch family for a while to fix their ways. Tom Robinson’s trial begins. Tom is accused of raping Mayella Ewell. Sheriff Heck Tate testifies and says that Bob Ewell called him over and lists the injuries that Mayella had. They conclude that no one thought of calling a doctor. Bob Ewell testifies and claims that he was chopping wood when he heard Mayella’s screams. He then ran to the window and peeked in to see Tom advancing on Mayella and then ran in. Bob Ewell then claimed that he ran in but Tom Robinson then ran off. Atticus finds that Bob Ewell is left handed and the beating was done with a left hand. Mayella leaves a lot of question unanswered but matched up with her father’s testimony. Tom Robinson however said that he was called in by Mayella to do a task and she advanced on him. He said that he scurried away when he heard Bob Ewell coming. Tom is also crippled in his left hand so shows that he could have not committed the crime he was accused of. At last, Atticus provides clear evidence that the accusers, Mayella Ewell and her father bob, are lying. Atticus provides impressive evidence that the marks on Mayella’s face are from wounds that her father caused, upon discovering her with tom, he called her a whore and beat her. Yet, despite the significant evidence pointing to tom’s innocence, the all white jury blame him. The innocent tom later, tries to escape from the prison and he is shot to death. After the trial, Jem’s faith is badly shaken and he lapses into doubt. Despite the verdict, Bob Ewell feels that Atticus and the judge have made a fool of him. He threat Tom Robinson’s widow, tries to break into the judge’s house, and finally attacks Jem and scout as they walk back home from a Halloween party. Boo Radley steps in to save the children and stabbing Ewell fatally during the struggle. Boo then carries the injured Jem to Atticus house, where the sheriff, in order to protect Boo, insists that Ewell tripped over a tree root and fell on his own knife. After sitting with Scout, Boo disappears into Radley’s house. Later, Scout feels as though she can finally imagine what life is like for Boo. He has become a human being at the last. With this realization, scout embraces her fathers advice to practice sympathy and understanding that her experience with prejudice will not sully her faith in human goodness.



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Year
Time of year
Chapter
What happens
1933
Early summer
1
Introduction. Arrival of Dill. Children try to get Boo to come out

September
2
Scout starts school: Miss Caroline Fisher. Description ofCunningham family

September
3
Burris Ewell upsets Miss Caroline. Ewells described.
1934
Late spring/early summer
4
Boo leaves gifts in tree. Dill comes back to Mayvcomb.

Late spring/early summer
5
Children attempt to send Boo a letter.

Late summer
6
Children try to spy on Boo.

October/November
7
Boo leaves more gifts. Hole is filled with cement. Boo arrested foralleged rape (November 21st).

Winter
8
Cold winter. Snow in Maycomb. Miss Maudie's house burnt

Christmas
9
Atticus agrees to defend Tom Robinson. Scout fights CousinFrancis.
1935
February
10
Atticus shoots Tim Johnson (a rabid dog).

Spring
11
Jem beheads Mrs. Dubose's camellias and has to read to her. Sheovercomes her morphine addiction and dies.

Summer
12
Children go to First Purchase with Calpurnia. Aunt Alexandra arrives.

Summer
13
Aunt Alexandra entertains Maycomb's ladies.

Summer
14
Dill returns to Maycomb.

Summer
15
A mob tries to lynch Tom. Scout intervenes and unwittingly saves him.

Summer
16
The trial begins. The children sit in the black people's balcony.

Summer
17
Heck Tate (sheriff) testifies, followed by Bob Ewell.

Summer
18
Mayella Ewell testifies.

Summer
19
Tom Robinson testifies. Dill cries at the cross-examination of Tom.

Summer
20
Scout and Dill meet Dolphus Raymond outside. Atticus sums up for thedefence. The children are found to be in the court.

Summer
21
The jury returns a verdict of guilty on Tom..

Summer
22
Jem cries at the verdict. Atticus receives presents from black community.Bob Ewell spits at Atticus and vows revenge.

Summer
23
Atticus is not frightened by Bob's threat.

August
24
The missionary circle meets for tea. News comes of Tom's death.

September
25
School starts again. Miss Gates teaches about Hitler and the Jews.

September
26
B.B. Underwood writes an editorial on Tom's death.

October
27
Bob Ewell attempts revenge on Judge Taylor and Helen Robinson. Atticus is not worried. A pageant is planned.

October
28
Jem and Scout go to the pageant. Bob attacks them, but they arerescued. Bob is found dead at the scene.

October
29
Scout describes the attack - Boo is revealed as the children's saviour.

October
30
Atticus thinks Jem has killed Bob Ewell. Heck Tate proves that it was Boo.

October
31
Boo and Scout go to see Jem. Scout takes Boo home.



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Bravery.

Bravery takes many forms in To Kill A Mockingbird.
1 - Atticus is brave to defend a black man in the face of criticism and threats of violence.
2 - Atticus is brave in the face of danger, both when he kills the rabid dog with a single shot and when facing the mob of men outside the jailhouse.
3 - Atticus urges Scout to be brave and prevent herself from fighting those who criticize her or her family.
4 - Atticus holds up Mrs. Dubose as the ultimate definition of bravery, as she finds against her morphine addiction in order to be free from it before she dies, even when she knows she will die in the process.

Prejudice.

There are 2 types of prejudice in the novel.

1 - Racial prejudice

  • In his trial, Tom Robinson is misjudged and mistreated because he is black.
  • Of all the evidence produced by Atticus makes it clear that Tom is innocent, yet Tom is found "guilty". This verdict is clearly based on the fact that Tom is black, but also that he, a black man, felt sorry for a white woman.


2 - Social prejudice

  • Some members of the Maycomb society are discriminated against by others due to their social status
  • Aunt Alexandra told Scout not to talk to Walter Cunningham. she said that "Because-he-is-trash". just because he was poor
  • The Ewell family are also victims of social prejudice. The whole family is looked down upon because of the father, Robert Ewell' is irresponsible.




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1. Mockingbirds
The title of To Kill a Mockingbird has very little literal connection to the plot, but it carries a great deal of symbolic weight in the book. In this story of innocents destroyed by evil, the “mockingbird” comes to represent the idea of innocence. Thus, to kill a mockingbird is to destroy innocence. Throughout the book, a number of characters (Jem, Tom Robinson, Dill, Boo Radley, Mr. Raymond) can be identified as mockingbirds—innocents who have been injured or destroyed through
contact with evil. This connection between the novel’s title and its main theme is made explicit several times in the novel: after Tom Robinson is shot, Mr. Underwood compares his death to “the senseless slaughter of songbirds,” and at the end of the book Scout thinks that hurting Boo Radley would be like “shootin’ a mockingbird.” Most important, Miss Maudie explains to Scout: “Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but . . . sing their hearts out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.” That Jem and Scout’s last name is Finch (another type of small bird) indicates that they are particularly vulnerable in the racist world of Maycomb, which often treats the fragile innocence of childhood harshly.

2. Boo Radley
As the novel progresses, the children’s changing attitude toward Boo Radley is an important measurement of their development from innocence toward a grown-up moral perspective. At the beginning of the book, Boo is merely a source of childhood superstition. As he leaves Jem and Scout presents and mends Jem’s pants, he gradually becomes increasingly and intriguingly real to them. At the end of the novel, he becomes fully human to Scout, illustrating that she has developed into a sympathetic and understanding individual. Boo, an intelligent child ruined by a cruel father, is one of the book’s most important mockingbirds; he is also an important symbol of the good that exists within people. Despite the pain that Boo has suffered, the purity of his heart rules his interaction with the children. In saving Jem and Scout from Bob Ewell, Boo proves the ultimate symbol of good.


3. The Radley Place:

The children of Maycomb County believe that the Radley Place is evil and haunted. They run past it whenever they cannot avoid going by it, and they won't eat the pecans that fall into the schoolyard from the pecan tree that grows in the Radley yard because they think they're poisoned.

4. Knothole:

The knothole is in a tree in front of the Radley place, and Scout and Jem begin finding little treasures waiting for them. They find chewing gum, two pennies, and a ball of twine, soap carvings of themselves, and a pocket watch that doesn't work. Boo Radley leaves these treasures for the kids, and they keep them safely in a trunk in Jem's room. They have established communication with Boo, but then Nathan Radley cements over the knot in the tree as a way to end the communication and claims that the tree was dying. Jem and Scout are crushed.

5. Blanket:

On the coldest night Maycomb County has seen in a long time, Jem and Scout are watching Miss Maudie's house burn, from a safe vantage point on the Radley property. Scout is freezing, and she doesn't notice until Atticus points it out that she has acquired a brown blanket without even realizing it. Boo sneaked out of the Radley house and covered her with the blanket while she was absorbed in watching the fire.

6. Jem's Pants:

While Jem, Scout, and Dill were trespassing on Radley property and trying to peer in windows, someone who came out on the back porch scared them off. In their haste to escape, Jem's pants got caught in the fence so he left them there. When he sneaked back to get them later that night, they were folded across the fence and the rips were crudely sewn. Boo Radley had repaired them for him knowing that he'd come back to get them.

7. Finch's Landing:

The old homestead built by Simon Finch, Scout and Jem's ancestor. Atticus' sister, Alexandra, and her husband live at Finch Landing, and every Christmas Scout and Jem are forced to go visit with their father. Their Uncle Jack stays with them for a week then, and they enjoy that, but the Christmas Day trip to visit Aunt Alexandra is a source of aggravation for both Scout and Jem because they have to play with their cousin, Francis.

8. Ewell Family:

The Ewell family is the most wretched family in Maycomb County. The father is a drunkard, and they have no mother. The children show up at school on the first day and then don't return until the first day of the next year. They are filthy and uncouth, and Scout blames their family for Jem's broken arm.

9. Maycomb County:

Maycomb County is where Scout, Jem, and Atticus live. It's a small, Alabama town that is old and set in its ways. Everyone in Maycomb has been there forever, and everything is public knowledge as it is in most small towns.


10. Tim Johnson:

Tim Johnson is an old dog who wanders Maycomb County as the community pet until it gets Rabies and Atticus has to shoot it to save the neighbourhood. Before this moment, Scout and Jem think their dad is feeble and lacking any sort of impressive talents, but this moment changes their mind about Atticus. They learn that he can shoot, but he doesn't take advantage of this talent because he doesn't want to brag, and he considers it an unfair advantage over the animals he'd be hunting.

11. Chiffarobe:

The chiffarobe was the chest of drawers that Mayella Ewell claimed she asked Tom Robinson to come onto their property and chop up on the evening she claimed he raped her. Although she and her father both insisted that she asked him to chop up the chiffarobe that night, Tom said that she'd asked him to do that the spring before the alleged rape.



















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Courage

Chapter 1
Courage 1: The truest challenge to anyone's courage is the Radley place. Dill made a bet with Jem that challenged Jem's courage. Rather than look like a coward, Jem took the bet to touch the Radley house although he was really scared to do it. He couldn't allow Dill and Scout to think him a coward because his courage was a source of pride.

Chapter 2
Courage 2: When Scout popped out of the tire, there was no time for courage. She realized she was in the Radley yard and Jem was screaming at her to get out of there. Although she was afraid, the most disconcerting aspect of the event was that someone inside the Radley house was laughing. When Jem accused her of turning into a girl because she ran so fast that she forgot the tire, she didn't tell him what she'd heard' although that would have more than made up for her forgetful and hasty escape from the Radley yard. She didn't even explain to Jem and Dill that that was the reason she didn't want to play the morbid Boo Radley game any more. She just let them go on thinking she was a chicken.

Chapter 6
Courage 3: Curiosity finally got the better of Dill and Jem, and it created in them the courage to sneak up to the Radley house to peer in the windows until they got caught and had to run away.
Courage 4: Curiosity wasn't the only thing that bred courage. Because Jem didn't want to disappoint Atticus, he was forced to go back to the Radley place to retrieve his pants so that he wouldn't have to explain where he'd lost them. Although he knew it was dangerous and he was scared to go, Jem went to the Radley place because the courage to go there was easier to summon than the courage to face Atticus and tell him that Jem had flat-out disobeyed him.

Chapter 10
Courage 5: Atticus showed his children that he was a courageous man when he stepped into the street to face down a rabid dog. Although he didn't consider the act particularly courageous and was completely uninterested in proving anything to his children, Jem and Scout were proud of, and impressed by, his courage in such a precarious situation. But shooting something wasn't really Atticus' idea of courage. He viewed courage on a more intellectual level, as a moral thing, not as something that can be proved with a weapon.

Chapter 11
Courage 6: Scout wasn't really sure what got into Jem to make him so bold as to destroy Mrs. Dubose's camellias when it was a well-known rumor that she was armed with a Confederate pistol at all times. Although Jem was familiar with the rumor, his rage pushed him beyond caring that he might be hurt or get into trouble because Mrs. Dubose had bad-mouthed Atticus, and Jem just couldn't take it. His fury made him bold enough to wreak havoc in her yard with little regard for the consequences.
Courage 7: Atticus uses Mrs. Dubose as an example of true courage to show Jem that courage isn't a man with a gun, but someone who fights for what's right whether he or she wins or not.

Chapter 15
Courage 8: Atticus went to the jailhouse to protect Tom Robinson from the mob he knew was coming for him. Although he was alone against several men, Atticus held his ground until his children showed up. Only then did Atticus seem truly afraid because they were in danger. He'd expected to get roughed up a little in the struggle to protect Tom Robinson, but he never imagined that his children would be in the way. That's when his courage failed him, but Scout's complete innocence saved them all.

Chapter 23
Courage 9: Atticus was unaffected by Bob Ewell's threat because he didn't believe the man would make good on it. He refused to fight or arm himself against Ewell although Jem and Scout requested it. He believed that once Ewell had threatened him in public, he'd satisfied his vengeance. Unfortunately Atticus was wrong.

Chapter 30
Courage 10: Heck Tate finally stepped out of the shadows and did the right thing. He hadn't been able to do it in the Tom Robinson case, but this time he refused to lie down and let an injustice occur. Although he had to lie to protect Boo Radley, he knew that keeping his role in Bob Ewell's death a secret was the right thing to do, and he did it.




Innocence

Chapter 1
Innocence 1: Scout tries to explain to her teacher that she is embarrassing Walter Cunningham by offering him something that he won't be able to pay back. Scout realizes that because her teacher isn't a local, she won't know that about the Cunninghams, but Scout's explanation gets her into trouble. She wasn't trying to be insulting, but Miss Caroline mistook her frank and innocent explanation as condescension or rudeness and punished her for it. Scout's perception of the world and her classmates is not yet marred by the social divisions that adults see.

Chapter 3
Innocence 2: Scout really does insult Walter this time as she questions the way he eats and makes him feel self-conscious. She's not doing it intentionally -- she's just curious because she's never seen people who eat that way. She's too young to understand the social graces of Southern hospitality that dictate that you always make people feel at home and welcome no matter how unusual their habits may be.

Chapter 5
Innocence 3: Dill asked Scout to marry her more because she was one of the only girls he knew than because he loved her. They are too young to understand what marriage means or why people marry, so they just pretend as a way of feeling grown up.
Innocence 4: Jem didn't realize that without actually saying that they were playing the Boo Radley game he still admitted to his father that that's what they were doing. His father used a courtroom technique to make his son confess, and it bothered Jem because he hadn't expected that from Atticus.

Chapter 6
Innocence 5: Although Atticus made threats to his children all the time, he'd never whipped them. Jem didn't want to have to disappoint Atticus by explaining that he'd deliberately disobeyed him, so he went back for his pants despite the danger of it. He didn't want to change the nature of his relationship with Atticus by making him punish Jem.

Chapter 7
Innocence 6: Jem realized that it was Boo Radley leaving little gifts for them in the knothole of the oak tree, and he was crushed when Nathan Radley cemented up their only line of communication. Nathan said he did it because the tree was dying, but it was obvious to Jem that he did it just to keep them from communicating with Boo, and it made him sad.

Chapter 8
Innocence 7: When Atticus suggested they return the blanket to the Radley house, Jem poured out all the secrets they'd been keeping about their contact with Boo Radley and how Nathan found ways to prevent it. Jem didn't want to return the blanket because he didn't want to get Boo into trouble since he'd never done anything but help them out although he'd had plenty of opportunity to hurt them. Jem realizes that Boo is a friend in a way and he wants to protect him, so he was willing to expose all his secrets to Atticus in order to protect Boo.

Chapter 9
Innocence 8: Scout hears her classmates saying terrible things about Atticus because he's defending a black man, but she doesn't see the wrong in what her father is doing. Atticus explains to her that it's not really a bad thing, but some people see it that way. Scout is too young to understand prejudice and injustice. Atticus tries to preserve this innocence by raising her to believe that there is nothing wrong with defending a black man. It's his duty, and so it should be hers as well.

Chapter 10
Innocence 9: It's a sin to kill a mockingbird because they are innocent birds who only live to make music for us to enjoy. That's what Atticus and Miss Maudie told Scout after she and Jem got their air rifles for Christmas. It's a sin to willfully destroy innocence, and a mockingbird embodies innocence.

Chapter 14
Innocence 10: Scout, in all her youthful naïveté, believes that Atticus and Cal need her around to run the house and make decisions. In her mind her role is greatly exaggerated, and Dill has experienced the painful realization that he's not needed as much as he thought he was. He's reached a point of awakening that Scout has yet to reach, but he's no happier for the knowledge he's gained.

Chapter 15
Innocence 11: Scout had no idea that the men gathered around her father were intending to harm him. She disarmed them with her youth and innocence in the way that she talked to Mr. Cunningham as a friend because she knew he'd done business with her father and she knew his son from school. The way she tried to strike up a friendly conversation with him must have reminded him that they were neighbors and friends, and that protected Atticus and Tom Robinson from being harmed by the mob of men from Old Sarum that night.

Chapter 19
Innocence 12: Dill cries after seeing the condescension with which Mr. Gilmer questioned Tom because he was a Negro. Dill believed that it was unfair to treat anyone that way, Negro or not. Dill was still too young to realize that it was commonplace for Negroes to be treated so disrespectfully. Mr. Raymond predicted that in a few years he might notice the injustice, but he would be so accustomed to it that he wouldn't cry over it any more.

Chapter 26
Innocence 13: Scout doesn't understand the hypocrisy her teacher displays in hating Hitler for his prejudice against Jews, yet she hates blacks just as much. The inconsistency bothers Scout and her realization of this double standard among people is the beginning of her awakening to the hypocrisy of most people.




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Chapter 1
"Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired old town when I first knew it. In rainy weather the streets turned to red slop; grass grew on the sidewalks, the courthouse sagged in the square. Somehow it was hotter then: a black dog suffered on a summers day; bony mules hitched to Hoover carts flicked flies in the sweltering shade of the live oaks on the square. Men's stiff collars wilted by nine in the morning. Ladies bathed before noon, after their three-o'clock naps, and by nightfall were like soft teacakes with frostings of sweat and sweet talcum." (5)

Chapter 2
"'Your father does not know how to teach. You can have a seat now.'
I mumbled that I was sorry and retired meditating upon my crime." (17)

Chapter 3
"'First of all,' he said, 'If you can learn a simple trick, Scout, you'll get along a lot better with all kinds of folks. You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view-'
'Sir?'
'-until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.'" (30)

Chapter 4
"Two live oaks stood at the end of the Radley lot; their roots reached into the side-road and made it bumpy. Something about one of the trees attracted my attention.
Some tin foil was sticking out of a knot- hole just above my eye level, winking at me in the afternoon sun. I stood on my tiptoe, hastily looked around once more, reached into the hole, and withdrew two pieces of chewing gum minus their outer wrappers." (33)

Chapter 5
"'So that's what you were doing, wasn't it?'
'Makin' fun of him?'
'No," said Atticus, "Putting his life's history on display for the edification of the neighborhood.'
Jem seemed to swell a little. 'I didn't say we were doin' that, I didn't say it!'
Atticus grinned dryly. 'You just told me,' he said. 'You stop this nonsense right now, every one of you.'" (49)

Chapter 6
"Then I saw the shadow. It was the shadow of a man with a hat on. At first I thought it was a tree, but there was no wind blowing, and tree trunks never walked. The back porch was bathed in moonlight, And the shadow, crisp and toast, moved across the porch towards Jem.
Dill saw it next. He put his hands to his face.
When it crossed Jem, Jem saw it. He put his arms over his head and went ridged." (53)

Chapter 7
"As Atticus once advised me to do, I tried to climb into Jem's skin and walk around in it: if I had gone alone to the Radly Place at two in the morning, my funeral would have been held the next afternoon. So I left Jem alone and tried not to bother him." (57)

Chapter 8
"'Thank who?' I asked.
'Boo Radly. You were so busy looking at the fire you didn't know it when he put the blanket around you.'
My stomach turned to water and I nearly threw up when Jem held out the blanket and crept toward me. 'He sneaked out of the house-turn 'round-sneaked up, an' went like this!'" (72)

Chapter 9
"Atticus said, 'You've a lot to learn, Jack.'
'I know. Your daughter gave me my first lessons this afternoon. She said I didn't understand children much and told me why. She was quite right. Atticus, she told me how I should have treated her-oh dear, I'm so sorry I romped on her.'" (87)

Chapter 10
"Atticus said to Jem one day, 'I'd rather you shoot at tin cans in the back yard, but I know you'll go after birds. Shoot all the blue jays you want, if you can hit 'em, but remember it's a sin to kill a mockingbird.'
That was the only time I ever heard Atticus say it was a sin to do something, and I asked Miss Maudie about it.
'Your father's right,' she said. 'Mockingbirds don't do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They don't eat up peoples’ gardens, don't nest in corncribs, they don't do one thing but sing their hearts out for us. That's why it's a sin to kill a mockingbird.'" (90)

Chapter 11
"'A lady?' Jem raised his head. His face was scarlet. 'After all those things she said about you, a lady?'
'She was. She had her own views about things, a lot different from mine, maybe ...son, I told you that if you hadn't lost your head I'd have made you go read to her. I wanted you to see something about her.- I wanted you to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand. It's when you know you're licked before you begin but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what. You rarely win, but sometimes you do.'" (112)

Chapter 12
"'It's not necessary to tell all you know. It's not ladylike -in the second place, folks don't like to have someone around knowin' more than they do. It aggravates 'em. You're not gonna change any of them by talkin' right, they've got to want to learn themselves, and when they don't want to learn there's nothing you can do but keep your mouth shut or talk their language.'" (126)

Chapter 13
"I never understood her preoccupation with heredity. Somewhere, I had received the impression that Fine Folks were people who did the best they could with the sense they had, but Aunt Alexandra was of the opinion, obliquely expressed, that the longer a family had been squatting on one patch of land the finer it was." (130)

Chapter 14
"'That's because you can't hold something in your mind but a little while,' said Jem. 'It's different with grown folks, we-'
His maddening superiority was unbearable these days. He did not want to do anything but read and go off by himself." (138)

Chapter 15
"'What's the matter?' I asked.
Atticus said nothing. I looked up at Mr. Cunningham, whose face was equally impassive. Then he did a peculiar thing. He squatted down and took me by both shoulders.
'I'll tell him you said hey, little lady,' he said.
Then he straightened up and waved a big paw. 'Let's clear out,' he called. 'Let's get going, boys.'" (154)

Chapter 16
"This was news, news that put a different light on things: Atticus had to, whether he wanted to or not. I thought it odd that he hadn't said anything about it-we could have used it many times defending him and ourselves. He had to, that is why he was doing it, equaled fewer fights and less fussing." (163)

Chapter 17
"Mr. Ewell wrote on the back of the envelope and looked up complacently to see Judge Taylor looking at him as if he were some fragrant gardenia in full bloom on the witness stand , to see Mr. Gilmer half-sitting, half standing at his table. The jury was watching him, one man leaning over with his hands over the railing.
'What's so intrestin'?' he asked.
'You're left handed Mr. Ewell,' said Judge Taylor." (177)

Chapter 18
"'It's not an easy question Miss Mayella, so I'll try again. Do you remember him beating you about the face?' Atticus's voice had lost it's comfortableness; he was speaking in his arid, detached professional voice. 'Do you remember him beating you about the face?'
'I don't recollect if he hit me. I mean yes I do, he hit me.'" (185)

Chapter 19
"Mr. Gilmer smiled grimly at the jury. 'You're a mighty good fellow, it seems- did all this for not one penny?'
'Yes suh. I felt right sorry for her, she seemed to try more'n the rest of 'em-'
'You felt sorry for her, you felt sorry for her?' Mr. Gilmer seemed ready to rise to the ceiling." (197)

Chapter 20
"'The state has not produced one iota of medical evidence that the crime Tom Robinson is charged with ever took place. It has relied instead upon the testimony of two witnesses whose evidence has not only been called into serious question on cross-examination, but has been flatly contradicted by the defendant. The defendant is not guilty, but somebody in this courtroom is.'" (203)

Chapter 21
"'Miss Jean Louise?'
I looked around. They were all standing. All around us, and in the balcony on the opposite wall, the Negroes were getting to their feet. Reverend Sykes's voice was as distant as Judge Taylor's:
'Miss Jean Louise, stand up. Your father's passin'.'" (211)
The people on the balcony realize how hard Atticus tried to let the truth be known. Even though they lost their case they show high respect for him. Reverend Sykes even asks Scout to stand which shows how respectful and well mannered he is.

Chapter 22
"Indoors, when Miss Maudie wanted to say something lengthy she settled her fingers on her knees and settled her bridgework. This she did, and we waited.
'I simply wanted to tell you that there are some men in this world who were born to do our unpleasant jobs for us. Your father's one of them.'" (215)

Chapter 23
"'Scout, I think I'm beginning to understand something. I think I'm beginning to understand why Boo Radly's stayed shut up in the house all this time.it's because he wants to stay inside.'" (227)

Chapter 24
"'Tom's dead.'
Aunt Alexandra put her hands to her mouth.
'They shot him,' said Atticus. 'He was running. It was durring their exercise period. They said he just broke into a blind raving charge at the fence and started climbing over. Right in front of them-'" (235)

Chapter 25
"'Why couldn't I mash him?' I asked.
'Because they don't bother you,' Jem answered in the darkness. He had turned out his reading light." (238

Chapter 26
"So many things had happened to us, Boo Radly was the least of our fears. Atticus said he didn't see how anything else could happen, that things had a way of settling down, and after enough time had passed people would forget that Tom Robinson's existence was ever brought to their attention." (243)

Chapter 27
"'I don't like it Atticus, I don't like it at all,' was Aunt Alexandra's assessment of these events. 'That man seems to have a running grudge against everyone connected with the case. I know how that kind are about paying off grudges, but I don't understand why he should harbor one-he had his way in court, didn't he?'" (250)

Chapter 28
"Shuffle foot had not stopped with us this time. His trousers swished softly and steadily. Then they stopped. He was running, running toward us with no child's steps.
'Run, Scout! Run! Run!' Jem screamed.
I took one giant step and found myself reeling: my arms useless, in the dark, I could not keep my balance.
'Jem, Jem, help me, Jem!'" (261)

Chapter 29
"When I pointed to him his palms slipped slightly, leaving greasy sweat steaks on the wall, and he hooked his thumbs in his belt. A strange small spasm shook him, as if he heard fingernails scrape slate, but as I gazed at him in wonder the tension slowly drained from his face. His lips parted into a timid smile, and our neighbor's image blurred with my sudden tears.
'Hey, Boo,' I said." (270)

Chapter 30
"Atticus looked like he needed cheering up. I ran to him and hugged him and kissed him with all my might. 'Yes sir, I understand,' I reassured him. 'Mr. Tate was right.'
Atticus disengaged himself and looked at me. 'What do you mean?'
'Well, it'd be sort of like shootin' a mockingbird, wouldn't it?'" (276)

Chapter 31
"Atticus was right. One time he said you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them. Just standing on the Radly porch was enough." (279)




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Based on your understanding of the novel,answers these questions...EARLY PREPARATION FOR FINAL!!!!

1. Analyze the childhood world of Jem, Scout, and Dill and their relationship with Boo Radley in Part One.

2. How do Jem and Scout change during the course of the novel? How do they remain the same?

3. What is Atticus’s relationship to the rest of Maycomb? What is his role in the community?

4. Discuss the role of family in To Kill a Mockingbird, paying close attention to Aunt Alexandra.

5. Examine Miss Maudie’s relationship to the Finches and to the rest of Maycomb.

6. Discuss the author’s descriptions of Maycomb. What is the town’s role in the novel?

7. Analyze the author’s treatment of Boo Radley. What is his role in the novel?



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1. What is Scout’s real name?
(A) Jean Louise Finch
(B) Louise Marie Finch
(C) Louise Scout Finch
(D) Lee Mae Finch

2. What is the verdict in the Tom Robinson case?
(A) Innocent
(B) Guilty
(C) The jury is hung.
(D) The judge calls a mistrial.

3. Whose house burns down?
(A) Aunt Alexandra’s
(B) Atticus’s
(C) Mr. Underwood’s
(D) Miss Maudie’s

4. Who is the editor of the local newspaper?
(A) Mr. Raymond
(B) Atticus
(C) Mr. Underwood
(D) Heck Tate

5. Who insists that Bob Ewell’s death is an accident?
(A) Heck Tate
(B) Atticus
(C) Scout
(D) Boo Radley

6. What is Boo’s real name?
(A) Hector
(B) Arthur
(C) Riley
(D) Robert

7. What does Scout first find in the knot-hole?
(A) Bird’s nest
(B) Gun
(C) Small bug
(D) Chewing gum

8. What does Dill find in Dolphus Raymond’s bottle?
(A) Wine
(B) Whiskey
(C) Coca-Cola
(D) Water

9. Why does Atticus admire Mrs. Dubose?
(A) Because she has courage
(B) Because she is committed to racial equality
(C) Because she is beautiful
(D) Because she is a proud Confederate

10. Who founded Finch’s Landing?
(A) Atticus
(B) Simon Finch
(C) Uncle Jack
(D) Jasper Finch

11. How did Miss Caroline learn her educational techniques?
(A) From long experience
(B) From a magazine article
(C) From talking to other teachers
(D) From college courses

12. Who is the president of the United States at the time that the events of the story occur?
(A) Theodore Roosevelt
(B) Harry Truman
(C) Franklin D. Roosevelt
(D) John F. Kennedy

13. Who tells Jem that it is a sin to kill mockingbirds?
(A) Atticus
(B) Miss Maudie and Aunt Alexandra
(C) Scout
(D) Dill

14. Where does Dill live during the school year?
(A) Arkansas
(B) Mississippi
(C) Georgia
(D) Boston

15. On what writer did Harper Lee base Dill?
(A) Ernest Hemingway
(B) Mary McCarthy
(C) Gustave Flaubert
(D) Truman Capote

16. Who tucks Scout in at the end of the novel?
(A) Aunt Alexandra
(B) Boo Radley
(C) Atticus
(D) Heck Tate

17. Who beat Mayella Ewell?
(A) Bob Ewell
(B) Boo Radley
(C) Tom Robinson
(D) Heck Tate

18. Whose actions lead Mr. Cunningham to disperse the lynch mob?
(A) Atticus’s
(B) Scout’s
(C) Jem’s
(D) Mr. Underwood’s

19. How old is Jem when the action of the novel starts?
(A) 8
(B) 7
(C) 10
(D) 9

20. What are Jem and Scout shocked to discover about Atticus?
(A) That he can play the fiddle
(B) That he can swim faster than any man in Maycomb
(C) That he is the best shot in Maycomb County
(D) That he is a prize-winning songwriter

21. Who takes the children to the black church?
(A) Calpurnia
(B) Miss Maudie
(C) Helen Robinson
(D) Reverend Sykes

22. Where does Boo leave presents for Scout and Jem?
(A) In a box on his porch
(B) In a hole in an oak tree
(C) In their mailbox
(D) On their windowsills

23. Who mends Jem’s pants?
(A) Miss Maudie
(B) Aunt Alexandra
(C) Scout
(D) Boo

24. Who runs away from home?
(A) Scout
(B) Jem
(C) Dill
(D) Francis

25. For what does Uncle Jack reprimand Scout on Christmas Eve?
(A) Cursing
(B) Refusing to play with Francis
(C) Not dressing in a ladylike way
(D) Opening her presents before she was supposed to


1) Analyze Mr. Underwood editorial and the trial scene. Connect them to the theme of the novel.

The editorial made by Mr. Underwood has clearly showed that he is upset with the system. He did not believe that any man could kill a man who is crippled regardless of his crime. He likened tom’s death to the senseless slaughter of songbirds by hunters. The trial scene also depicted the unjust ways human can act to treat a helpless human being. The trial scene portrayed how Tom was bombarded with false accusation and harsh questions by Mr. Gilmer. This upset Dill very much for he has seen Mr. Gilmer tries his very best to defend his client and Dill feels that Mr. Gilmer is very mean. How can this two scene in the novel be connected to the theme? Well, it’s easy if you ask me. The theme of the novel is racism and acceptance. Tom Robinson was treated unjustly by the legal system, by the jury and the people of Maycomb. His kind is not accepted in the society. Another theme is innocence. This can be seen when Mr Underwood made the editorial. He wanted to show that Tom Robinson is innocent and killing him is similar to killing songbirds by hunters.


2) Describe the town of Maycomb and how it reflects the characters in it. (describe Radley' house and how it represent the Radleys physical & personality traits and for the other characters as well)



To Kill a Mockingbird takes place in the fictional small Southern town of Maycomb in the 1930s (Tom’s trial takes place in 1935). Slavery and the Civil War of the 1860s still loom large in the rearview mirror, but the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s is just a speck on the future horizon. Maycomb, despite its civic importance as the county seat, is a small and stagnant town. It’s a place where time seems to stand still.


The Radley’s house – the Radley lives at the far corner of the neighbourhood. Their house was always closed and they never came out of the house. The location of the Radley’s house shows that they want to live in isolation, not that the rest of the town deserted them. It’s just the way they live. The Radley can also be said to have possessed a great amount of secrecy among them. They are a mysterious family who never comes out and mingle with the other neighbour. This is a perfect depiction of Boo Radley himself. He is a man of secret who never wanted to come out of his house.
The live oaks in the schoolyard- this shows that even though Boo Radley is a man of secret, he is also a generous person. He dropped things in the knot-hole for the kids shows that he is kind towards them. By dropping things in the knot-hole, Boo Radley manages to keep his identity. He does not want the kids to know that he was the one who had been dropping things in the knot-hole for them. He wanted to remain anonymous.
The negro cabin- they lived beyond the town dump, away from the white community. Tom Robinson lives in one of the cabin. The location of their place shows that they are not wanted in the white community. That is why they are resorted to live near the town dump. This also shows that the Negros are poor and could not afford to live in a better place.

The finch house – they live among their neighbour. This shows that they are friendly people. This also shows that Atticus is a well-respected man because their house was surrounded by good people such as Miss Maudie, Mr Avery and Mrs Dubose.

Old Sarum/ Cunningham’s house – the Cunningham lives at the far end of the town. They lived near Old Sarum, the forest. This shows that the Cunningham were hard-working people because they are farmers. They also are very much different from the Ewell because they wanted to live near the forest rather than the town dump. This shows that the Cunninghams are proud people and does not want to be on the level with the Ewell. They too, are poor because they could not afford to live in the same neighbourhood with Atticus and the others.
The Ewell’s House- The Ewell lives beyond the town dump, near the Negro cabin. This shows that they are poor and like the Negros, they are not wanted in the society.

Finch Landing- the Finch landing is located 20 miles from Maycomb. The landing shows that the Finch are once a wealthy family for they own their own landing.





3) Analyze more on the characters of Scout, Jem, Atticus, Tom because they are the main characters. What happened to them? How they changed? What changed them?
Scout
There are four main characters found in the novel which are Scout, Jem, Atticus and Tim Robinson. We are going to start the analysis by starting with Scout. Scout is Atticus’s only daughter. She is a tomboy as her only friends are his brother, Jem and Dill. The novel also uses her voice to narrate the novel. She is an example of the new southern girl, very strong-willed, opinionated and accepting in the matters of racism. We may say that she is the antithesis of Aunt Alexandra. Whatever Aunt Alex is, she is quite the opposite. She did not have any seed of racism in her and she did not practised double standard. This is portrayed by the way she treated Calpurnia, the coloured helper Atticus hired. Scout is rather a reflection of her father, Atticus with the way she is outspoken and the courage she possessed to challenge others when she sees something fits even with her own fist. She is truly the heroine of the novel.

Jem
Jem is the eldest son of Atticus. He has become an object of affection for Scout for she looked up to him. Like Scout he is also intelligent but quite naive in some ways. Because of his naive nature, he has to look for Atticus’s guidance in order for him to understand the darker aspect of human nature. Because of this, he has grown to be the moody young man. When Scout asked her about racism and justice, he became rude and angry because he, himself did not understand the topic as he is also looking for the answer and he realised the topics have no answer that any growing kid can comprehend easily. Towards the end of the novel, Jem has become calmer. He has matured throughout the novel and better understands his world. He has now in the step of becoming a gentleman, just like his father. He has grown both physically and mentally throughout the novel.

Atticus

Atticus is the father of Jem and Scout. He is a lawyer in Maycomb. He is a very intelligent man. He goes far beyond the taboo subject during that time which is racism. He portrayed a great value of wisdom in the novel. He is a tolerant gentleman. He looks at each person with different perspectives and tries to understand them, just like the way he advises Jem to apologise to Mrs Dubose. He explained to Jem that Mrs Dubose is a brave old lady and the way he explained to Scout what kind of people are the Cunningham. He is also a responsible gentleman. He feels that it is his responsibility to defend Tim Robinson. This proves that he is not hypocrite.

Tom Robinson
Tom is a respectable, humble and kind Negro whom Atticus is defending. Because of Tom’s skin colour, he was treated unjustly. The jury found him guilty and he was sent to a work prison. While Atticus was expecting a new trial, Tom was shot to death because he tried to escape. The reason he wanted to escape was that he did not believe in justice anymore. He knew that he will never get his justice and a man with his skin colour will never be treated equally and just. The unfair trial has changed him completely. Before, he believes in the ability of Atticus to defend him. However, when he was convicted, he loses his faith in Atticus and tries to free himself by escaping from the prison. The trial also changed him from an innocent man to a guilty man even though he did not commit the crime.






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